الأحد، مايو 10، 2015

Mesra = Mes Ra = Sons of Ra? Possible Ancient Origins for "New" Names ... مصر Misr !

The Origins of "Mesra" مصر ... Today's Name of Egypt

According to Wikipedia:

The English name Egypt is derived from the Ancient Greek Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος), via Middle French Egypte and Latin Aegyptus. It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as a-ku-pi-ti-yo. The adjective aigýpti-, aigýptios was borrowed into Coptic asgyptios, and from there into Arabic as qubṭī, back formed into قبط qubṭ, whence English Copt. The Greek forms were borrowed from Late Egyptian (Amarna) Hikuptah "Memphis", a corruption of the earlier Egyptian name Hwt-ka-Ptah (ḥwt-k-ptḥ), meaning "home of the ka (soul) of Ptah", the name of a temple to the god Ptah at Memphis. Strabo attributed the word to a folk etymology in which Aígyptos (Αἴγυπτος) evolved as a compound from Aigaiou huptiōs (Aἰγαίου ὑπτίως), meaning "below the Aegean".

Miṣr (IPA: [mi̠sˤr] or Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mesˤɾ]Arabicمِصر‎) is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while Maṣr (IPA: [mɑsˤɾ]Egyptian Arabicمَصر) is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם (Mitzráyim). The word originally connoted "metropolis" or "civilization" and means "country", or "frontier-land".

The ancient Egyptian name of the country was km.t, which means black ground or black soil, referring to the fertile black soils of the Nile flood plains, distinct from the deshret (dšṛt), or "red land" of the desert. This name is commonly vocalised as Kemet, but was probably pronounced [kuːmat] in ancient Egyptian. The name is realised as kēme and kēmə in the Coptic stage of the Egyptian language, and appeared in early Greek as Χημία (Khēmía). Another name was t-mry "land of the riverbank". The names of Upper and Lower Egypt were Ta-Sheme'aw (t-šmw) "sedgeland" and Ta-Mehew (t mḥw) "northland", respectively.

Mizraim (Hebrewמִצְרַיִם / מִצְרָיִםModern Mitzráyim Tiberian Miṣrāyim / Miṣráyim ; cf. Arabic مصرMiṣr) is the Hebrew and Aramaic name for the land of Egypt, with the dual suffix -āyim, perhaps referring to the "two Egypts": Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.

  • King of Egypt was often known as King of the Two Lands (+ Kosh and beyond).
  • The Hebrews could likely have got the name (Mizraim) from an older Egyptian origin and then made it sound like something that is meaningful for them!



  • Until today, Egyptians call their capital (Cairo or Al Qahera) "Masr" or "Misr" - i.e., the same name they call the whole country. The Capital is located in the joining of the two lands (the Valley and the Delta) - very close to Memphis as well as Heliopolis (Oun - Sun City - close to Ein Shams - Eye of the Sun) - which was a center for the worship of Ra - the Sun God.


However, we know that the 12th month in the Ancient Egyptian Calendar is Mesra! That calendar is still used as the Coptic calendar - used by the church and by most Egyptian farmers till today - since it is strongly related to agricultural seasons and Nile cycle.

But what does Mesra means?

According to Wikipedia,

Mesori, also known as Mesra, is the twelfth month of the Coptic calendar. It lies between August 7 and September 5 of the Gregorian calendar. The month of Mesori is also the fourth month of the Season of 'Shemu' (Harvest) in Ancient Egypt, where the Egyptians harvest their crops throughout Egypt. The name of the month of Mesori comes from Mes-en-ra, an Ancient Egyptian word that means Birth of the Sun (Ra).


So, it could also be seen that Mesra could mean Sons of Ra - or people of Ra.

So, Mesra ... could simply refer to Sons of Ra or Nation of Ra.


What about Cairo - Al Qahera?

Cairo (/ˈkr/ kye-roh Arabicالقاهرة‎; is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Middle-East and second-largest in Africa after Lagos. Its metropolitan area is the 13th largest in the world. Located near the Nile Delta, it was founded in 969 CE. Nicknamed "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Cairo was founded by Jawhar al-Siqilli "The Sicilian", of the Fatimid dynasty, in the 10th century CE, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo is also associated with Ancient Egypt as it is close to the ancient cities of Memphis,Giza and Fustat which are near the Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza.

Cairo ... Khere-Ohe?

Egyptians today often refer to Cairo as Maṣr ([mɑsˤɾ]مصر), the Egyptian Arabic pronunciation of the name for Egypt itself, emphasizing the city's continued role in Egyptian influence. Its official name is القاهرة al-Qāhirah , means literally: "the Defeater", in reference to the fact that the planet Mars ("Al Najm Al Qahir") was rising at the time when the city was founded as well as, "the Vanquisher"; "the Conqueror"; Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [elqɑ(ː)ˈheɾɑ], "the Defeater" or, " "the Victorious" (al-Qahira) in reference to the much awaited Caliph al-Mu'izz li Din Allah who arrived from the old Fatimid capital of Mahdia in 973 to the city. The Egyptian name for Cairo is said to be: Khere-Ohe, meaning: "The Place of Combat", supposedly, in reference to a battle which took place between the Gods Seth and Horus. Sometimes the city is informally also referred to as كايرو Kayro [ˈkæjɾo]. It is also called Umm al-Dunya, meaning "the mother of the world".


Under every layer in Egypt, lies yet another layer!

So, Cairo, Al Qahera ... could be just a distorted way of pronouncing Khere-Ohe ... it is more plausible that Umm Al-Dunya (Mother of the World) ... has its name from an older origin ... and that the Fatimid ruler decided to find a name which had a favorable meaning in Arabic and also sounded like what people used to call their city. It could even be Ka Hwt Ra (The spirit home of Ra?)

So, the concept that Cairo was built a 1,000 years ago, is actually a lie! In reality, it has been the center of Egypt since the Old Kingdom at least (5000 years!)  - whether Memphis, Oun / Iunu / Heliopolis or Babylon . Even when  the capital moved to Thebes, Oun /Heliopolis remained an important center for Sun traditions (which undoubtedly included astronomy and calendar related calculations and mathematics). Moreover, the name is probably not new either. 


السبت، مايو 09، 2015

An Attempt at Demystifying Egyptian Alchemy

·         What is this we hear about Ancient Egyptians being Great Magicians ?
·         Were they?
·         What was their magic?
·         Did they possess para-natural or “metaphysical” skills?
·         Was it all about spells and potions and magic words?
·         Did they actually have the secret of turning cheap metals into Gold?


For over forty centuries in Egypt, Math, Engineering, Astronomy, Chemistry, Physics, Medicine, Technology, Arts, Music & Philosophy were developed inside Temples with a great deal of Mystery and Secrecy.

Priests used their exclusive knowledge in performing what would appear as miracles to those who knew nothing of the secrets of such scientific and technological advances.

They also used such knowledge & Technology to make exclusive products worth its weight in GOLD, turning cheap sands into impressive glassware, cheap impure metal ore into weapons and tools of great value.

Those admitted into the priesthood / academia had to prove their worthiness and commitment and purity, and complex Rituals, special words, scented fumes, even music and dances accompanying delivery of such miracles. The rituals made those miracles seem connected to the religion and the mysterious para-natural forces. Of course, they were just using physics and chemistry and natural laws of the universe, only known to them at the time.

Thus they were known to turn dirt and cheap metals to GOLD. Of course, there existed myths, and there flourished some magical arts amongst the public which frauds and reject priests would perform imitated tricks to the public utilizing illusion, psychological deception, etc.

Many of the Greek and Greco-Egyptian scientists managed to get into scholar affiliations to the temples during the period 330 BC to Approx 400 AD and they documented a good deal of that knowledge and further developed cohesive theoretical frameworks for some branches of those sciences. Much of the exclusive knowledge, however, was never transferred to later generations. With the banning of Egyptian Language and scripts by the decree of 391, Egyptian Language was lost and soon forgotten.

Some scrolls containing remains of such knowledge were passed down from Greeks and Romans to Europeans, and during the dark ages, this idea of turning cheap metals into Gold became very popular amongst kings, nobility, adventurers and frauds alike. Because the Egyptian Hieroglyphs meant nothing to them, they would think that the symbols themselves had some magical powers, while such scrolls may had contained a step-by-step procedure to produce a certain chemical in the lab but because of such obscurity, it would appear as some magical script Abracadabra sort of thing.

The manner in which religion, philosophy, science and technology were intertwined in those procedures gave rise to such spiritual link and enhanced the para-natural appearance of the memory of the Egyptian Alchemy.

In Summary

·         How the Egyptian language was lost for 15 centuries: The word "hieroglyph" comes from the Greek hieros (sacred) & glyphos (words or signs)
·         Ancient Egyptians called the Hieroglyphs 'mdju netjer' = Divine Scripture or "words of the gods"
·         Egyptians believe in the power of the words and the names ...
·         Earliest Hieroglyphs were discovered on bone, ivory, pottery & clay impressions discovered in a pre-dynastic tomb in Abydos dated 3400 BC.
·         391AD: Christian Byzantine Emperor banned Egyptian religions, temples & Hieroglyphs & started to persecute followers of Egyptian religions
·         When Theodosius 1 closed the temples - he terminated a 4000 year old tradition & the language & knowledge of ancient Egypt was lost!
·         Philosophy of Isis continued until around the 6th century (in Philae - far to the south - away from persecution)... & secretly thereafter
·         Well into this day - around the world - in different forms of the revived traditions
·         But when the language was the lost - the vast ancient knowledge became almost encrypted!
·         Some knowledge was passed on - through the Greeks and Arabs - but a lot was lost
·         The rumor was that the ancient scrolls contained the secret knowledge of turning dirt and cheap metal into gold!
·         The physical act of burning thousands & thousands of scrolls in Alexandria Library + banning of the language = sealed & encrypted the knowledge
·         The library may have suffered several fires or acts of destruction over many years. Possible occasions for the partial or complete destruction of the Library of Alexandria include a fire set by Julius Caesar in 48 BC, an attack by Aurelian in the AD 270s, and the decree of Coptic Pope Theophilus in AD 391.
·         The turning of dirt into gold was only metaphoric: Manufacturing products & medicines from basic ingredients which were exchanged for gold
·         Ancient Egypt is commonly referred to as 'km.t' - hence the arts of Chemistry (& more mystical / fraudulent Alchemy) ... acquired the name
·         The whole fraudulent tradition around Alchemy centered around this rumor which was only metaphoric: Egyptian Monks could turn dirt into gold
·         The technology was lost in the temples - and only unintelligible scrolls could be found - because of the lost language ...
·         The scrolls did contain the secrets of making products, ointments and medications - but no one could decrypt the knowledge within
·         k.mt itself means black land or black soil ... possibly enforcing the link between Alchemy and the rumor of turning dirt into gold
·         To make things worse-Egyptian monks mixed technology with spirituality - they would utter some prayers as they made their "magical" products
·         Ancient monks/technologists would utter prayers as they made "magical" products -as to bless their work - as most Egyptians do till this day
·         The whole thing became obscured with the loss of the language ... and hence Abracadabra bogus traditions emerged
·         I actually think that what the Ancients used their exclusive knowledge of Chemistry, Physics, Technology, Astronomy, etc., in making things which appeared “magical” to others … including kings and nobility.
·         It is said (Source is Socrates Scholasticus and others) that a Bishop "Cyril" was behind the killing of Hypatia of Alexandria ... on the hands of a Christian mob ...
·         Death of Hypatia in 415 AD, marked the end of an era of science, art, knowledge and enlightenment - and entry into savagery and dark ages
·         For 8 centuries ... and beyond ... human civilization limbed - mostly backwardly ...
·         To date humanity has yet to heal from that set back
·         The old traditions were not as "Pagan" nor idiotic as they were made to sound ..
·         If anything, they revered the natural forces and the balance, equilibrium and harmony which must exist between man and nature - if man was to survive - that is
·         In essence - the ancient traditions looked at physics and spirituality as if they were mere facets of the same grand scheme of things.

According to Wikipedia, Egyptian magic, Heka activates (Ka) - the soul which embodied personality.

Heka (/ˈhɛkə/EgyptianḤkȝ; also spelt Hike) was the deification of magic in ancient Egypt, his name being the Egyptian word for "magic". According to Egyptian writing (Coffin text, spell 261), Heka existed "before duality had yet come into being." The term "Heka" was also used for the practice of magical ritual. The Coptic word "hik" is derived from the Ancient Egyptian.
Heka literally means activating the Ka, the aspect of the soul which embodied personality. Egyptians thought activating the power of the soul was how magic worked. "Heka" also implied great power and influence, particularly in the case of drawing upon the Ka of the gods. Heka acted together with Hu, the principle of divine utterance, and Sia, the concept of divine omniscience, to create the basis of creative power both in the mortal world and the world of the gods.
As the one who activates Ka, Heka was also said to be the son of Atum, the creator of things in general, or occasionally the son of Khnum, who created specific individual Ba (another aspect of the soul). As the son of Khnum, his mother was said to be Menhit.


هل برع المصريون القدماء في السحر فعلاً ... أم أن موضوع السحر قشرة لأشياء أخرى؟

An Attempt at Demystifying Alchemy

هل برع المصريون القدماء في السحر؟

ما هو هذا السحر؟

هل هو أشياء خارقة للطبيعة؟

تعاويذ وهمهمات وصلوات وبخور؟

هل كان لديهم سر تحويل المعادن الرخيصة إلى ذهب؟

قدرات سحرية أم تكنولوجيا سرية؟

نعتقد أن شهرة الكهنة المصريين في شئون السحر، إنما جاءت نتيجة لتوصلهم إلى أسرار علوم الكيمياء والطبيعة والرياضيات بصورة حصرية وسرية غير معلنة، وقيامهم باستخدام هذه الأسرار في استباط تقنيات متعددة، فجاءت قدرتهم على الإتيان بأعمال تبدو للمراقب غير المطلع على مثل تلك الأسرار بمثابة أمور خارقة ومعجزات وأعمال سحرية، تماماً كمن يستخدم البارود مثلاً في إحداث انفجار وسط مجموعة من البدائيين الذي يستخدمون البلط أو السيوف، فيصبح في نظرهم ساحراً أو حتى إلهاً قادر على تسخير الرعد والبرق في خدمته!

وبالطبع فإن تجليات التبحر العلمي والتقني للكهنة صاحبتها أيضاً طقوس وأجواء تضفى المزيد من الغموض على تلك الظواهر، ولا شك أن هناك مجموعات كبيرة من الدجالين والمدعين والمطرودين، أنشأوا صناعة كاملة تتربح من السحر والدجل والشعوذة، ونشأت مدراس موازية للسحر، وأخرى تخلط بين السحر والعلم والكيمياء والدين والفلسفة والتصوف، وانتشرت مثل هذه المدارس والمذاهب وجماعات السحر في مصر وخارجها، وازدهرت في القرون الوسطى في أوروبا مع عصور الظلام، ثم قامت الكنيسة في روما بإعلانهم ككفرة ومهرطقين بما فتح الباب للدول المختلفة في القيام بحملات محاكم التفتيش لتعقبهم، وكان عقابهم في العادة هو الحرق، ورغم ذلك استمروا في ممارسة طقوسهم سراً، واليوم توجد جماعات عديدة منهم أوروبا وفي الولايات المتحدة

فن الكيمياء السحرية

هذا الفن ارتبط في الأذهان بتحويل المعادن الرخيصة إلى معدن الذهب النفيس

وهو حلم داعب العلماء والمشعوذين والملوك والمغامرين على حد سواء وخاصة في العصور الوسطى، عصور الظلام. ولنا في هذا نظرة مغايرة قد تفسر جزئياً انتشار هذا الفن في مصر، والصبغة الأسطورية التي أحاطت به فيما بعد. بداية، تأتي كلمة الكيمياء من اسم مصر نفسها، كيمي أو كيميت كما كان يسميها أهلها، وكيمي تعني الأرض السوداء، تمييزاً لها عن أرض الصحراء الصفراء أو البنية. ونعتقد أن فكرة تحويل المعادن الرخيصة لمنتجات قيمة، هي في الواقع روح فكرة الكيمياء السحرية، فما أسهل الحصول على معدن أو مادة خام رخيصة، ولكن مع وجود التقنية المناسبة، يضع الصانع الماهر لمسته السحرية، في صورة قيمة مضافة تحول المادة الخام إلى منتج قيم غالي الثمن، مثل تحويل الرمل إلى اباريق وأكواب وأوان زجاجية، أو تحويل تراب أو كسر المعادن إلى معدن نقي قابل للتشكيل في صورة أسلحة أو أدوات أو عدد يدوية غالية الثمن

وهي نفس الفكرة التي نراها اليوم، حيث يقتصر النشاط الاقتصادي في الدول المتخلفة تقنياً على تصدير المواد الخام في حالتها الأولية، فتشتريها الدول المتقدمة بأبخس الأثمان، وتعيد تنقيتها وتقسيتها وصناعتها ثم تحولها إلى منتجات غالية الثمن، تقترب في ثمنها من الذهب، وعلى سبيل المثال، فثمن المادة الخام الموجودة في أحد أجهزة الهاتف المحمول لا تتجاوز جنيهات قليلة، ولكن سر الصنعة وبراءات الاختراع تحول تلك المادة الخام إلى منتج يباع بآلاف الجنيهات رغم أن وزنه لايتجاوز بعض المئات من الجرامات، وهو بهذا يماثل الذهب في قيمته وقد يفوقه قيمة

هذا هو ما نعتقد أن القدماء قد اشتهروا به، وهو ابتكار قيمة مضافة على المواد الأولية فتصبح منتجات غالية الثمن، ومع جو الكهنوت المحيط بالموضوع، اشتهرت مصر بالسحر، واشتهر كهنتها بفن "الكيمياء السحرية
" Alchemy
وهي الشهرة التي تضخمت فيما بعد بحكم الجهل الذي صاحب دخول
العالم في عصور الظلام على يد الدولة البيزنطية، مع روح الغموض وجو الأسرار الذي أحاط بكتب ومخطوطات الكهنة ووصفاتهم "السحرية"، وخاصة مع ضياع اللغة المصرية، فأصبحت تعليمات التشغيل أو خطوات الإنتاج مثل "كلمات سحرية" – "أبرا كادابرا"، وبهذا ارتبط السحر في أذهان العامة والمشعوذين بإلقاء كلمات معينة لا يفهم أحد معناها وذلك لضياع مفاتيح اللغة والعلم. فسحر المصريين إذا طبقاً لنظريتنا هذه، لم يكن أكثر من قدرات تقنية عالية، تطورت عبر مئات السنين، ثم ضاعت مراجعها وكتبها وانقطعت مدارس أساطينها فجأة وما نجا من تلك المراجع كان مكتوباً برموز غير مفهومة أشبه بالطلاسم، ولذا امتلأت كتب السحر بالرموز المشتقة من رموز الهيروغليفية وظن العامة أن تلك الرموز إنما تمثل إشارات سحرية ذات قوة خاصة تكمن في شكل الرمز نفسه، بينما أن تلك الرموز لم تكن سوى وصفات عادية تشرح مقادير وظروف وكيفية الصنع أو خطوات الوصول من مادة لمادة من خلال التفاعلات الكيميائية العادية الطبيعية

وأياً كان الأمر، فقد تتلمذ العلماء والفلاسفة اليونانيين على إيدي الكهنة المصريين، ووضع اليونانيون هياكل تنظيرية معلنة وحولوا ما تعلموه مما "بقى" من معارف المصريين إلى بناء متكامل من النظريات المترابطة بصورة منطقية سلسة تدعو إلى الإعجاب، فأصبحت العلاقات السحرية التي اكتشفها المصريون بين المواد والأرقام والأشكال الهندسية، أساس البناء العلمي الذي نعمل به إلى اليوم. ولكن بالطبع ضاع الكثير من تلك المعارف بسبب السرية من جهة وبسبب تحول المصريين إلى اللغة القبطية، ثم ما ذكرناه من محاربة الدولة البيزنطية للكتابة المصرية القديمة، وقيامها بالقضاء على الديانات المصرية والمعابد المصرية التي كانت موطناً للعلماء الكهنة، وما رأيناه أيضاً من تزمت فكري ومعاداة للعلم. وبهذا فإن قد كبير من المسئولية عن ضياع التقدم العلمي الذي وصل إليه المصريون تقع على الدولة البيزنطية والكنيسة الكاثوليكية

الأعمال والربط والفك والعكوسات!

بالطبع هناك أيضاً أشياء موجودة إلى الآن - ترتبط بالسحر الشعبي - مثل الأعمال والعكوسات والأحجبة والربط والفك وغيرها - وهي ترتبط بقوة الإيحاء والعوامل النفسية في التأثير على شخص ما سواء سلباً أو إيجاباً - وهو ما يشبه لحد ما أيضاً ما يقوم به المعالج النفسي - في الشق الإيجابي ...



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